Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Biomedical Engineering and Imaging

Research Advisor

Gary S. Keyes, Ph.D.


Jinsong Huang, Ph.D. Vivian S. Loveless, Pharm.D. Richard A. Smith, Ph.D. Herbert D. Zeman, Ph.D.


Computed radiography, Contrast agent, Dual‑energy subtraction technique, Small animal, Temporal subtraction technique, X‑ray projection


Tumor angiogenesis, the creation of new blood vessels, is the characteristic of solid tumors and crucial for their development. Iodinated contrast agents are used to increase the X‑ray detectability of zone of angiogenesis, and thus providing a means for tracking tumor growth.

The overall objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of Kodak CR 7400, a high‑resolution compact computed radiography (CR) system in detection of Omnipaque‑240, an iodinated contrast agent, in a phantom mimicking small animal tumor model.

The first phase of the project was dedicated to a comprehensive assessment of CR image quality by measuring presampled Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Noise Power Spectrum (NPS), Relative Standard Deviation of Noise (RSD), Noise Equivalent Quanta (NEQ), and Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE).

Next, dual‑energy and temporal subtraction techniques were implemented to enhance the contrast of iodinated regions and suppress soft tissue background in the phantom. The underlying physics of each technique was discussed, including the design of the phantoms, the simulation and measurement of the Signal‑to‑Noise Ratio (SNR) in the final subtracted iodine image, and dose assessment. In the end, the results of both techniques were compared along with discussions about the advantages and limitations of implementing each technique.

Overall, the study supported the potential of low‑cost CR 7400 in small animal study, particularly detecting iodinated contrast agents implementing temporal subtraction technique and provided a background for similar small animal studies using a CR system.



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