Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Dental Science (MDS)



Research Advisor

Edward F. Harris, Ph.D.


Joe L. Wasson, D.D.S., M.S. Jere L. Yates, D.D.S., M.S.


Class II Malocclusion, Functional appliance, MARA


The effectiveness of functional appliances is a debatable topic in the orthodontic literature, primarily because the benefits have not been consistently reproduced among clinical studies. The present study was a retrospective cephalometric analysis of patients with Class II, division 1 malocclusions at the start of treatment. There were 51 children treated by a single clinician with a MARA in combination with Edgewise appliances. The comparison group consisted of subjects treated with fixed Edgewise appliances only from the University of Tennessee, Department of Orthodontics. Subjects in the two treatment groups were matched on a one-to-one basis for sex and for five cephalometric variables (SNA, SNB, ANB, NAP, FMA) to ensure comparability. The key question was whether the cephalometric results at the end of treatment were comparable between the two groups. The MARA subjects were treated on an average of 2.8 years compared to the Edgewise group with a treatment time of 2.5 years. The Edgewise group had a larger proportion of premolars extracted for treatment compared to the MARA subjects, 69% and 4%, respectively. Cephalometrically, ANB was on average 1° smaller in the MARA group. Overall, the lower incisors proclined in both treatment groups during treatment. Similar skeletodental endpoints were achieved in both groups regardless of treatment mechanics. We conclude that either treatment are viable treatment options in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions.