Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Dental Science (MDS)



Research Advisor

Laura A. Darnell, DMD, PhD


Robert L. Brandt, DDS, MS David R. Cagna, DMD, MS Gregory J. Paprocki, DDS Mark Scarbecz, PhD Russell A. Wicks, DDS, MS


Denture liners, Color change, Cleansers, Staining agents


Background: Denture liners are routinely used as part of immediate denture therapy, following surgery involving edentulous tissues, and to improve the function and stability of existing removable prostheses. Appropriate application of denture liners can facilitate patient comfort during prolonged therapy and prior to placement of definitive restorations. However, concern has been raised regarding the susceptibility of common denture liners to agent-induced color change which, in turn, adversely impacts the esthetic appeal of the associated removable prosthesis.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the color stability of denture liners exposed to commonly encountered food stains and commonly used denture cleaning solutions.

Method: Disk samples, 20mm in diameter, were fabricated consisting of two layers: a 2mm thick denture base resin layer (Lucitone 199®, Dentsply, York, PA) and a 2mm thick denture liner layer. Three groups of 45 samples were prepared, each group representing a different denture liner, including: a silicone liner group (Silk Line™, J. Morita USA, Irvine, CA); a methyl methacrylate-free resin liner group (GC Reline™, GC America, Inc., Alsip, IL); and a polyethyl methacrylate resin liner group (Kooliner™, GC America, Inc., Alsip, IL). An equal number of samples from each liner group were assigned to one of three staining agents, including: cola (Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, GA); grape juice, and coffee. Following a 12hr. staining cycle, samples from each staining agent were equally distributed to one of three soaking fluids for 12hrs., including: two different effervescing cleaning agents (Efferdent, New Brunswick, NJ, and Polydent, Philadelphia, PA) and distilled water. This stain-soak cycle was continuously repeated, changing the soaking solution every day. Denture liner color measurements were made (Labscan XE Spectrocolorimeter, Hunter Associates Laboratory, Reston, VA) on the 1st, 15th, 30th, 45th, and 60th day and color differences (ΔE) were calculated.

Results: Statistical analysis revealed that all liners experienced substantial color change from baseline to 2-weeks. From 2-weeks to 8-weeks, no statistically significance color change was recorded for any of the staining agent-soaking solution combinations. When comparing results for the different liner types, the silicone liner demonstrated significantly increased overall staining as compared to the resin liners.

Conclusions: This study suggests: (1) exposing denture liners investigated to the staining agents used resulted in clinically discernible color changes; (2) use of denture cleansers had little beneficial effect on liner discoloration as compared to immersion in water; (3) following initial liner color change at two weeks, little to no further color change was noted regardless of staining agent or soaking fluid; (4) the silicone liner demonstrated the greatest color change when compared to the resin liners; and (5) conventional denture cleansers were statistically similar (p > 0.05) to water with respect to the improvement of discolorations evaluated in this study.