Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Dental Science (MDS)



Research Advisor

Joo L. Ong, Ph.D.


Jane Anne Blankenship, D.D.S. David Cagna, D.M.D., M.S. Yunzhi Yang, Ph.D.


Tricalium phosphate, osteoblasts, titanium, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin


Dental implants are the gold standard of restorative dentistry today. Implants have been used for several years in Orthopedics. Dental implants are an important treatment option for several patients today. When a patient is fully or partially dentate, they are given the opportunity to restore their dentition in ways similar to their natural oral cavity. The past literature states that titanium is one of the first metals used in implant placement. There have been many improvements made on this material. Most modifications have been used in order to promote more bone growth around these implants. Several different coating materials have been used to increase bone formation. Titanium (Ti) surfaces have been coated with hydroxyapatite (HA), plasma spray, and several blasting techniques have been implemented. Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is a coating that has been used for several years. Due to its porosity and likeness to natural bone, many feel that it is an ideal coating for both dental and orthopedic titanium implants. We believe that TCP coated titanium increases the amount of osteoblastic cell attachment and early bone producing biomarker proteins in osteoblastic cells when compared to HA coated titanium and titanium only materials.