Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Nursing Science

Research Advisor

Michael A. Whitt, Ph.D.


Patricia A. Cowan, Ph.D. Donna K. Hathaway, Ph.D. Wendy M. Likes, Ph.D. Elizabeth A. Tolley, Ph.D.


Bioelectrodynamics is the study of how electromagnetism affects the biophysical functions of living organisms by examining the effects on biochemical processing at the cellular level. The Cellular Energy Transfer Science (CETS) system modulates the magnetic behavior of aqueous metal ions by applying direct current (DC) with a Lorenz force to a hypotonic saline solution. This treated solution was then used to make growth media for cancerous and noncancerous cell lines in vitro. Exposure of cancerous and noncancerous cells to this media showed significant growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, hyperpolarization of transmembrane potential and apoptosis of cancerous cells while not causing a growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest or apoptosis of the noncancerous cell lines. Microarray and RT-qPCR show the cancerous cells headed to apoptosis by the unfolded protein response (UPR), TNF/TRAIL, and p53 oncogene activation. Alternatively, the noncancerous cells show a significant increase in cell migration/wound healing after exposure to the treated media with no activation of apoptosis pathways.




Included in

Nursing Commons