Faculty Advisor

Sharon H. Little, DNP, FNP-BC, APRN

Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 4-28-2023


Investigative Techniques | Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing | Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing



Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder that can significantly affect a patient’s psychological state. Because of this, medication nonadherence is reported as one of the most common causes of relapse and rehospitalization in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Although long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics can help provide more continuous treatment, they do not address other factors that affect treatment adherence. This scoping review will evaluate existing literature to assess if a multimodal approach, such as increased patient follow-ups in addition to scheduled, current-practice LAI treatment and management, may increase treatment adherence in adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.


A database search was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed Clinical Queries, Cochrane Library, Sage, and Medline Ovid from the dates 2013-2022. Articles were chosen if they were based on scientific research involving human subjects and if they provided full free-text access. Both quantitative and observational studies were used to provide alternate perspectives on medication interventions and health outcomes.


After conducting a systematic database search, 117 articles were selected, and after applying exclusion criteria, ten articles were chosen to be included in this scoping review. The articles illustrated that LAIs decrease hospital length of stay and increase treatment adherence, but multimodal approaches were not adequately examined to determine their effectiveness.

Implications for Practice

The results of this scoping review support that LAIs are generally superior to oral antipsychotics in the treatment of adult patients with schizophrenia. However, there is not enough literature to determine the effectiveness of bi-weekly follow-ups in combination with LAI treatment to increase treatment adherence in adults diagnosed with schizophrenia. The implementation of bi-weekly follow-ups for schizophrenic patients still holds promise, but more studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of LAI treatments and accompanying interventions to increase treatment adherence.