Efficacy and Safety of Teprotumumab in Patients With Thyroid Eye Disease of Long Duration and Low Disease Activity

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The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism






CONTEXT: Early inflammatory thyroid eye disease (TED) can lead to symptomatic chronic disease, including disabling proptosis. Teprotumumab, an insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor, previously demonstrated efficacy in acute, high-inflammation TED trials. OBJECTIVE: We present data from the first placebo-controlled trial with teprotumumab in chronic/low disease activity TED. METHODS: This randomized double-masked, placebo-controlled trial, conducted at 11 US centers, enrolled adult participants with TED duration of 2 to 10 years, Clinical Activity Score (CAS) ≤ 1 or no additional inflammation or progression in proptosis/diplopia for ≥1 year, proptosis ≥3 mm from before TED and/or from normal, euthyroid/mildly hypo/hyperthyroid, no prior teprotumumab, and no steroids within 3 weeks of baseline. Patients received (2:1) intravenous teprotumumab or placebo once every 3 weeks (total 8 infusions). The primary endpoint was proptosis (mm) improvement at Week 24. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 62 (42 teprotumumab and 20 placebo) patients were randomized. At Week 24, least squares mean (SE) proptosis improvement was greater with teprotumumab (-2.41 [0.228]) than with placebo (-0.92 [0.323]), difference -1.48 (95% CI -2.28, -0.69; P = .0004). Proportions of patients with AEs were similar between groups. Hyperglycemia was reported in 6 (15%) vs 2 (10%) and hearing impairment in 9 (22%) vs 2 (10%) with teprotumumab and placebo, respectively. AEs led to discontinuation in 1 teprotumumab (left ear conductive hearing loss with congenital anomaly) and 1 placebo patient (infusion-related). There were no deaths. CONCLUSION: Teprotumumab significantly improved proptosis vs placebo in longstanding/low inflammation TED, demonstrating efficacy regardless of disease duration/activity. The safety profile was comparable to that previously reported.